Environmental Impact Assessment involves an in-depth analysis of the potential impacts of a proposed project on the environment. It focuses on different aspects, including human health, socio-economic and cultural impacts. This post will discuss factors affecting EIA reporting in mining projects and possible remedies.
During mining processes, there are many alterations that must be made to the landscape. Common impacts include soil erosion, waste disposal, loss of topsoil and deforestation. The mining project affects the ecological relevance of the proposed area. Thus, during an EIA, selective processes and overburden analyses are crucial to mitigate these impacts.
During the pre-mining phase, land use is impacted by vegetation removal and population displacement. Therefore, environmental impact assessment is essential to ensure any changes in land use occur optimally to minimise the impacts. Furthermore, land reclamation must happen without delays using pre-determined land use and landscape patterns. EIA reporting helps reduce adverse land use impacts on the local population by providing more benefits.
Mining projects have socio-economic benefits to the local population through the creation of employment opportunities and medical facilities and boosting infrastructure. However, it impacts the community negatively through resettlement that affects their social heritage and culture. EIA reporting tries to address the inclusion of displaced persons in employment opportunities and attempts to minimise lifestyle disruptions.
Water Resources and hydrology
Adverse impacts of mining also include the alteration of groundwater patterns, decreased water tables and volume changes in subsurface water bodies. Bauxite soil types have high water retention qualities due to their porous characteristics. EIA reporting addresses the need for storing pumped water during mining. This way, there is adequate water recharging and supply.
Mining processes cause water pollution from erosion, mine water effluents, domestic sewerage discharge and sedimentation. Besides, contamination may result from oil and grease leakages, toxic wastes and acidic mine drainage. EIA reporting addresses these issues by recommending various engineering measures as well as dumping stabilisation procedures. Furthermore, measures such as mine water treatment and collection and the subsequent treatment of leachates and sewerage effluents are enacted.
Finally, mining causes dangerous air pollution from dust, material degradation and soiling. Blasting and drilling activities generate immense dust emissions to the air. During the EIA process, all air pollution aspects are put into consideration, including the presence of industrial refineries. Additionally, haulage roads in the mining site require proper chemical spray to minimise dust emissions. Most importantly, the installation of quality air monitoring on mining sites is paramount.
For more information, contact a company that offers environmental impact assessment reports.